Nanotechnology: The Physics of Nanomaterials
David Schmool, PhD

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Nanotechnology: The Physics of Nanomaterials

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Nanotechnology: The Physics of Nanomaterials will be a comprehensive guide through the various aspects of nanophysics in a single volume. The author’s microscopic approach will illustrate how physical principles can be used to understand the basic properties and functioning of low-dimensional systems. Much of physics is based on our understanding of solid-state physics. This book will show how limitations of size can give rise to new physical properties and quantum effects, which can be exploited in new applications and devices.

The volume will provide a broad introductory chapter on the interest of nanophysics and nanotechnologies, and the importance of low-dimensional and surface physics will be discussed in reasonable depth. There is a large range of physical preparation techniques available for the production of nanomaterials and nanostructuring. The aim of Part II will be to give a good overview of the main techniques of their working principles and the type of structures that can be produced in each case. There will be a reasonably extensive coverage of the main physical properties of materials, where a brief overview of basic concepts will be given at the beginning of each chapter. This will provide the reader with an overview of the important physical parameters. In each chapter the emphasis will be on discussing how the physical constraints of size influence and modify these physical properties. This is one of the key concepts in nanosciences and will be forefront in the analysis of the physical properties given. In each of these chapters a broad range of applications will be discussed to illustrate how the physical properties of materials can be manipulated to perform very specific functions.

Key features:

• Provides a comprehensive textbook on nanoscience, covering all major areas of the physics involved in nanostructures. This will include sample preparation techniques, characterization methods, physical principles, and applications.
• Presents an introduction and summary to each chapter, highlighting the principal ideas of each chapter in a concise manner.
• Includes revision problems that will allow students to assess their progress at the end of each chapter.
• Each chapter will be supplemented by further recommended reading.

Based on a lecture course the author has given over a period of several years, the book includes the benefit from the feedback from students, helping to make the subject matter approachable and appealing to newcomers and students.

1 Introduction to Nanotechnologies
1.1 What Is Nanoscience and Why Are We So Interested in It?
1.2 Definitions
1.3 Modification of Physical Properties
1.4 Methodologies: Bottom-Up/Top-Down


2 Vacuum Science and Technology 

2.1 Orders of Magnitude
2.2 Physical Principles of the Vacuum
2.3 Production of Vacuum: Pumps; Gauges; Hardware
2.4 Production of Clean Surfaces

3 Surface Physics
3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Physical Surface: Perfect Surfaces and Real Surfaces
3.3 Surface Crystallography 

3.4 The 2D Reciprocal Lattice
3.5 Adsorption at Surfaces: Chemisorption and Physisorption; Desorption and 
Surface Diffusion 

4 Thin Films
4.1 Introduction

4.2 Nucleation and Coalescence 

4.3 Deposition and Growth Modes
4.4 Thermodynamics of the Surface
4.5 Deposition Techniques

5 Techniques for Surface and Nanostructure Analysis
5.1 Surface Diffraction Techniques
5.1.1 Introduction
5.1.2 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) 

5.1.3 Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
5.1.4 Grazing-Incidence Xray Diffraction (GI-XRD)
5.2 Electron Spectroscopies
5.2.1 Introduction 

5.2.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 

5.2.3 Electron Energy - Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) 

5.2.4 Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) 

5.2.5 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
5.3 Surface Microscopies
5.3.1 Introduction 

5.3.2 Field Emission Microscopy (FEM) 

5.3.3 Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) 

5.3.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 

5.3.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 

5.3.6 Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) 

5.3.7 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 


6 Lithographic Technologies
6.1 Optical Lithography
6.2 E-beam Lithography
6.3 Focused Ion Beam Lithography
6.4 X-ray Lithography
6.5 Etching Techniques: Wet and Dry Methods

7 Replication Techniques

7.1 Nano-Imprinting
7.2 Soft Lithography
7.3 Micro-Moulding
7.4 Dip-Pen Nano-Lithography
7.5 Nano-Sphere and Nano-Stencil Lithography

8 Nanoparticle Fabrication
8.1 2D Assemblies: Aggregation Sources, Sub-Monolayer Growth, and Incommensurate Layers

8.2 3D Assemblies: Clusters and Colloids
8.3 Ordered Assemblies of Nanoparticles

9 Other Fabrication Techniques and Technologies

9.1 Nanowires
9.2 Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes
9.3 Self-Assembly


10 Mechanical Behavior
10.1 Review of Mechanical Properties
10.2 Sensors and Actuators
10.3 Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems: MEMS
10.4 Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems: NEMS
10.5 Devices and Applications

11 Electrical Properties
11.1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Properties of Solids
11.2 Quantum Wells/Wires/Dots
11.3 Size and Confinement Effects
11.4 Quantum Point Contacts
11.5 Resonant Tunnelling
11.6 Coulomb Blockade
11.7 Single Electron Tunnelling
11.8 Graphene
11.9 Applications: Sensors, Lasers, Towards Nano-Computing

12 Optical Properties
12.1 Overview of Optical Properties of Solids
12.2 Absorption and Emission
12.3 Photonic Band Gap Materials
12.4 Plasmonic Nanostructures
12.5 Negative Refractive Index Materials

13 Magnetic Properties
13.1 Introduction: Ferromagnetism and Magnetic Order
13.2 Magnetic Multilayers
13.3 Spin Electronics/Spintronics
13.4 Types of Nanostructure
13.5 Super-Paramagnetism
13.6 Spin Dynamics in Magnetic Nanostructures
13.7 Magneto-Plasmonics
13.8 Applications

About the Authors / Editors:
David Schmool, PhD
Director, Groupe d’Etude de la Matière Condensée GEMaC, CNRS (UMR 8635, Université de Versailles/Saint-Quentin, Université Paris-Saclay,Versailles, France
David Schmool, PhD, has over 20 years of technical and teaching experience in areas related to Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies. He is currently Director of the Groupe d’Etude de la Matière Condensée GEMaC at CNRS (UMR 8635) at the Université de Versailles/Saint-Quentin, Université Paris-Saclay in Versailles, France. Prior to that, he was at the University of Perpignan and Laboratoire PROMES – CNRS, Perpignan, France, as well as at several universities in the UK, France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. He has also been invited for sabbatical leave as a visiting fellow to several institutions, including Simon Fraser University (Canada), the University of Versailles (France), the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany), and the University of Glasgow (UK). In addition to his research experience, he has lectured on physics since 2000 on a variety of subjects. He has also developed Masters and PhD level courses in nanotechnologies and related subjects, which he has also taught. He has published widely, including over 65 journal papers, 10 book chapters, and a book and has given many conference presentations, including 15 invited talks and over 20 invited seminars.

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