Pharmaceutical Technology

Leishmaniasis
Biology, Control and New Approaches for Its Treatment

Saurabh Bhatia, PhD
Divakar Goli, PhD

Leishmaniasis

Published
Pub Date: October 2016
Hardback Price: $159.95
Hard ISBN: 9781771884198
E-Book ISBN: 9781771884204
Pages: 422 pp with index
Binding Type: hardback
Notes: 59 b/w illustrations


Reviews
“This book fills an important niche and is usefully written in the broadest sense of the subject. The authors are immensely experienced and knowledgeable university teachers. Despite the explosion of online information available with the click of mouse, this is a handy and easy-to-read book that has been carefully conceived and crafted by experts becomes indispensable. I congratulate Dr. Bhatia and Dr. Divakar for bringing out this reference book on leishmaniasis, and I am sure the book will find respectable space in the bookshelves of academicians, busy practitioners, and students alike.”
—From the Foreword by Professor T. V. Narayana, Secretary, Indian Pharmaceutical Congress Association; Vice President, Indian Pharmaceutical Association


Infections caused by Leishmania parasites, which are spread by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies, are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries and causing significant morbidly and mortality in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The resulting disease, leishmaniasis, currently threatens about 350 million women, men, and children in 88 countries around the world, with about two million affected annually.

The plant kingdom is undoubtedly a valuable and promising source of new medicinal agents to treat this endemic disease. This new volume provides exhaustive knowledge on a wide range of natural products and holistic concepts that have provided promising in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Including the major natural therapies as well as traditional formulations, over 300 medicinal plants and 150 isolated compounds that are reported to have beneficial results in the treatment of the disease are explored in this comprehensive work. In addition, this book also acts as an important resource on various anti-inflammatory plants that can be used to treatment various inflammatory conditions of the disease.

The potent leishmanicidal activities of certain chemically defined molecules isolated from natural originals are extensively discussed, and the pharmacology of leishmaniasis, including the latest updates on the target sites and exploration of novel mechanisms of natural programs against the Leishmania parasite, are also included.

This new volume will prove invaluable for all scientists, researchers, practitioners, and others concerned with this life-threatening disease prevalent on several continents and which is now making it way out of poverty and into the United States.

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CONTENTS:
Preface
Chapter 1: Ayurveda and Leishmaniasis
1.1 Introduction to Ayurveda
1.2 Medicinal Plants in Ayurveda
1.3 Ayurvedic Classification of Plant-Based Drugs
1.4 Different Types of Ayurvedic Dosage
1.5 Extraction Procedures Used to Prepare These Preparations
1.6 Natural Therapies Used to Treat Disease
1.7 Formulas and Various Dosage Forms
1.8 Natural Remedies for Leishmaniasis
1.9 References

Chapter 2: Pharmacology of Leishmaniasis
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Etiology
2.3 Molecular Epidemiology
2.4 Transmission
2.5 Glycobiology of Leishmania donovani
2.6 Sand Fly-Leishmania Interactions
2.7 Leishmania-Macrophage Interactions
2.8 Antimicrobial Peptides with Leishmania and Their Functional Role in Host Parasitism
2.9 Biochemical Targets for Therapy
2.10 Drug Delivery Systems for Leishmaniasis
2.10.1 Phagocytosis and Potential Drug Delivery System
2.11 Current Therapies
2.11.1 Drugs in Clinical Development
2.11.2 Leishmania Vaccines
2.11.3 Adjuvant for Leishmania Vaccine
2.11.4 Clinical Manifestations
2.11.5 Visceral Leishmaniasis and Amphoterecin B
2.12 References

Chapter 3: Diagnosis and Strategies to Control Leishmaniansis
3.1 Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis
3.2 Various Identification and Culturing Practices Used During the Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis
3.3 Strategies to Control the Vector in Leishmaniasis
3.4 References

Chapter 4: Immunomodulatory Agents for Leishmaniasis
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Targeting of Host Immunity by Anti-Leishmanial Drugs
4.2.1 Role of Neutrophils
4.2.2 Monocytes and Macrophages
4.2.3 Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)
4.2.4 Role of DCS
4.2.5 Lymphocytes
4.2.6 Macrophage Derived Cytokines as a Measure of Immunomodulatory Activity
4.2.7 Effect on Co-Stimulatory Molecules
4.3 Modulation of Signaling Events in Leishmania Infection
4.3.1 Effect on Expression of CD40 and MAPK Signaling Pathways
4.3.2 Toll-Like Receptors and Their Responsiveness in Leishmania Infection
4.3.3 Leishmania Infection and Effect on JAK-STAT Pathways
4.3.4 Modulation of NF-κB Signaling Pathways by Leishmania
4.3.5 Alterations of Host Cell Kinases and Phosphatases by Leishmania
4.4. References

Chapter 5: Ayurvedic Treatments for Leishmaniasis
5.1 Ayurvedia and Leishmania
5.2 Ayurvedic Prescriptions for Leishmaniasis
5.3 Ayurvedic Formulations Suitable for Leishmaniasis
5.4 Prevention
5.5 Possible Mechanisms
5.6 Ayurvedic Herbs for Leishmaniansis
5.7 Unani Treatment

Chapter 6: Phytotherapy for Leishmaniasis
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Natural Plant Products
6.2.1 Mechanisms of Action of Plant-Derived Compounds
6.2.1.1 Flavonoids
6.2.1.2 Quinones
6.2.1.3 Alkaloids
6.2.1.4 Lignans
6.2.1.5 Tannins
6.2.1.6 Terpenoids
6.2.1.7 Oxylipin
6.2.1.7 Miscellaneous
6.3 Marine Sources
6.4 Miscellaneous Sources
6.5 References

Chapter 7: Elements Supplementation in Leishmaniansis
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Iron (Lauha Kalpas)
7.3 Zinc (Yasada, Rasaka or Kharpara)
7.4 Copper
7.5 Potassium
7.6 Magnesium
7.7 Calcium
7.8 Antimony and Arsenic
7.9 Mercury
7.10 Selenium
7.11 Vitamin C
7.12 References

Chapter 8: Alternative Therapies for Leishmaniasis
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Chelation Therapy
8.3 Oil Therapy
8.4 Acupuncture
8.5 References

Chapter 9: Inflammation and Leishmaniasis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Evidence Acquisition
9.3 Description of the Database of Anti-Inflammatory Plants
9.4 Mechanism of Action of Natural Drugs
9.5 Ayurveda for Pain and Inflammation Management
9.6 Role of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in Leishmania
9.7 References

Chapter 10: Modern Treatment for Leishmaniasis
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Current Scenario on Leishmaniasis
10.2.1 Protozoal Parasitic Disease: Current Situation and New Perspective
10.2.2 The Leishmaniasis: A Global Problem
10.2.2.1 Leishmaniasis: An Overview and Geographical Distribution
10.2.2.2 Co-Infection of Leishmaniasis with AIDS
10.2.2.3 Kala-Azar: History and Clinical Perspective
10.2.2.4 Different Geographical Forms of Kala–Azar (KA)
10.2.3 Protozoology of the Genus Leishmania
10.2.3.1 Classification of the Genus Leishmania
10.2.3.2 Morphology and Ultra-Structure of Leishmania
10.2.3.3 Life Cycle of Leishmania
10.2.3.4 Different Geographical Forms of Kala–Azar (KA)
10.2.4 Epidemiology of Leishmaniasis
10.2.4.1 Zoonotic Form versus Anthroponotic Form
10.2.4.2 Visceral Form versus Cutaneous Form
10.2.4.3 Acute Form versus Chronic Form
10.2.5. Transmission and Vectors
10.2.5.1 Sandfly Transmission
10.2.5.2 Congenital Transmission
10.2.5.3 Blood Transfusion
10.2.5.4 Direct Contact
10.2.6 Biochemistry of Leishmania
10.2.6.1 Morphological Transformation of Leishmania
10.2.6.2 Cultural Requirement
10.2.6.3 Utilization of Substrates
10.2.6.4 Energy Metabolism
10.2.7 Drugs Available for Treatment of Leishmaniasis
10.2.8 Outline of Promastigote and Amastigote Metabolism
10.2.9 An Overview of L. donovani amastigote
10.3 Review on Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport System
10.3.1 Introduction
10.3.2 The Evidence for Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport
10.3.3 The Properties of Animal Cell Transmembrane Electron Transport
10.3.4 Components of the Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport System
10.3.5 Evidence for Co-Enzyme Q Function
10.3.6 Inhibitors of Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport
10.3.7. Proton Release Associated with Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport: Animal Cells
10.3.8 Inhibition of Proton Release
10.3.9. Mechanism of Electron Transport Driven Antiport
10.4. Electron Transport Chain
Index


About the Authors / Editors:
Saurabh Bhatia, PhD
Assistant Professor, School of Medical and Allied Sciences, GD Goenka University, Gurgaon, Haryana, India

Saurabh Bhatia, PhD, is currently working as an Assistant Professor at the School of Medical and Allied Sciences, GD Goenka University, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. He has several years of academic experience, teaching such specialized subjects as natural product science, nanotechnology, biotechnology, parasitology, polymeric sciences, and biomaterials. He has promoted several marine algae and their derived polymers throughout India. He has written more than 30 international publications in these areas and has been an active participant of more than 35 national and international conferences. So far he has successfully finished nine books in pharma and its allied sciences. His published books include Modern Applications of Plant Biotechnology in Pharmaceutical Sciences (Academic Press, Elsevier, 2015); Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery: Fundamentals, Design, and Applications (Apple Academic Press, 2016); Leishmaniasis: Biology, Control and New Approaches for Its Treatment (Apple Academic Press, 2016); Natural Polymer Drug Delivery Systems: Nanoparticles, Plants, and Algae (Springer, 2016); and Natural Polymer Drug Delivery Systems: Nanoparticles, Mammals and Microbes (Springer, 2016). Dr. Bhatia graduated from Kurushetra University followed by earning his MPharm from Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune, India. He received his PhD degree from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

Divakar Goli, PhD
Professor and Principal, Acharya & B M Reddy College of Pharmacy, Karnataka, India
Divakar Goli, PhD, is currently a Professor and Principal at the Acharya & B M Reddy College of Pharmacy in Karnataka, India. He is the Editor of the Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the official scientific publication of the Indian Pharmaceutical Association from 2014-2016-2018 as well as the regional RGUHS Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. He holds or has held many prestigious roles, including Honorary President and Director at Iphar Pharmaceuticals Limited and at Du Laboratories Limited; Secretary of the Education Division and Associate Secretary of the Indian Pharmaceutical Association; Chairman of the 50th Golden Jubilee Celebration Committee of National Pharmacy Week in 2011; Secretary of the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), Bangalore chapter; and member of many academic bodies. In 2014, Dr. Goli received the coveted Principal of the Year award from the Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India. He is also the recipient of the prestigious fellowship of the Indian Pharmaceutical Association, and fellow of the Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy, and the Institution of Chemists (India). Active in his field of specialization, pharmaceutical biotechnology and management studies, he is a member of many professional organizations and has presented at numerous national and international conferences. Dr. Goli has published almost 100 research articles in professional publications and is also coauthor of the book Pharmaceutical Marketing Management. Dr. Goli has earned PhDs in both Pharmaceutical Sciences and Commerce and Management Studies from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, and well as a degree in computer applications.




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